Work Package 1

Development of Action Methodology (M1 – M28)
Work Package 1 will lay the foundations on which the project will be implemented. The study framework will include the sectors of shipping, their specific characteristics, and the available technologies and solutions for ‘Green Shipping’. These will feed into the methodology for evaluating solutions based on various criteria, upon which the decision support tool/platform will be based, fully compatible with international agreements and regulations.

Sectors of Shipping, Special Characteristics, Green Shipping (M1 – M4)

Recording all elements and characteristics of Shipping according to the types of ships, routes, maritime markets, and ports. Determining those elements that contribute to or are potentially affected by the shift of the ship and port system towards Green Shipping and its decarbonization.

Collection of Fuels, Technologies, and Operations for Green Shipping (M1 – M6)

Categorization of solutions that reduce the carbon footprint of ships (new and existing) into design, technology, operational, and market-centered. The analysis will take into account factors such as technological maturity, improvement of energy efficiency, and carbon reduction potential, as well as the feasibility of implementation at sea based on safety and cost.

Development of a System and Methodology for Evaluating Solutions, Criteria (M1 – M6)

Development of a methodology for evaluating technologies and solutions (WP 1.2) and their combinations, with the primary criterion being the reduction of carbon usage and emissions. Introduction of techno-economic parameters. Finalization of the flowchart and algorithm of the decision support tool/platform.

Development of a Decision Support Tool/Platform (M4 – M18)

The results of WP 1.1-1.3 will be used for the development of the tool/platform and then the selection, design, and evaluation of potential solutions and collaborative design will take place. The algorithms will be based on intelligent data analysis techniques and big data. This will be followed by development, to be applied in subsequent WPs.

Monitoring Compliance with the Principles of the European Green Deal (M1 – M28)

Investigation of the directions of the Green Deal so that the methodology and tasks of the project are maintained and move within its priorities.

Work Package 2

Alternative Fuels and Management (M1 – M24)
Investigations will be conducted on alternative clean fuels and energy sources, as well as power conversion technologies for ship propulsion and its other needs. Additionally, the production, distribution, and disposal of alternative fuels and their storage technologies will be examined, analyzing risk and safety issues on ships and in ports. An assessment will be made and, if possible, a quantification of the contribution to carbon footprint reduction.

Alternative Clean Fuels (M1 – M12)

Alternative clean fuels that can be used in ships and ports for energy production (e.g., H2, NH3, CH3OH) will be explored, and the requirements of each will be analyzed based on their properties.

Alternative Sources (M1 – M12)

An overview of the international situation regarding ship propulsion using on-board renewable energy sources will be conducted, exploring the possibilities of using wind/solar and electrical energy (with potential storage) and their hybrid forms in ships and ports.

Energy Conversion and Combustion (M4 – M18)

Each fuel from WP 2.1 will be associated with usage technologies (e.g., internal combustion engines, fuel cells) while performance indicators, emitted pollutants, and other parameters will be investigated. The comparison will be made with available data from marine ICEs.

Technologies for Reducing the Footprint of Transitional Alternative Fuels (M12 – M18)

The use of transitional fuels (e.g., LNG, LPG) and the existing engine technology (e.g., dual-fuel) that offer opportunities for reducing pollutants compared to conventional engines during the transitional operating period will be investigated.

Fuel Production (M12 – M20)

The possibilities for fuel synthesis (locally, near ports), the required quantities, and the environmental footprint of the processes, especially in relation to H2 production, (sequestered) CO2 disposition, and (electrical) network constraints will be studied.

Storage of Marine Fuels on Ships and in Ports (M12 – M20)

Technologies and specifications for the storage of alternative fuels on ships and in ports will be investigated in relation to safety rules and design components, as well as their transport and supply chains.

Safety of New Fuels and Technologies (M12 – M24)

A risk analysis will be conducted to determine the required changes in ship or port systems for safe operation. Safety systems and procedures will be proposed for ships and ports.

Work Package 3

Energy Upgrading and Reduction of Carbon Footprint of Ships and Ports. (M6 – M24)
WP 3 will deal with the management and upgrading of energy efficiency in ships and ports, researching solutions for the exploitation of waste heat and combined energy production, as well as contemporary designs to increase the energy efficiency of ships. An assessment and, if possible, quantification of the contribution to carbon footprint reduction will be made.

Energy Management and Efficiency in Ships (M6 – M18)

The study of a ship’s energy efficiency using its energy efficiency indicators (e.g., EEDI, CII) and the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) based on the activities taking place on the ship. It will investigate if there are new solutions that contribute to the reduction of energy/fuel consumption, such as platforms for optimizing energy management.

Energy Management and Efficiency in Ports (M6 – M18)

A study will be carried out on the most suitable technical energy management practices in ports to enhance their energy upgrade, optimize energy flow, and ultimately reduce energy consumption and pollutant emissions.

Technologies for Exploiting Waste Heat and Co-Generation of Energy (M12 – M24)

The main technologies for utilizing waste heat for the production of electricity, cooling, and steam will be examined. The analysis will be done with respect to their potential per type of ship and port, and cost correlations will be developed to investigate their viability. In addition, the possibilities of co-generation in relation to the use of alternative fuels will be studied.

Contemporary Ship Design with a Focus on Energy Saving (M16 – M24)

Contemporary ship design trends aimed at reducing hydrodynamic losses and the weight of construction, improving stability, and other parameters will be analyzed, while the reduction in fuel consumption will be assessed.

Work Package 4

Emissions of Climate-Active Substances (CAS) and Reduction of Environmental Footprint (M1 – M24)
Mapping and possibilities for reducing the environmental footprint of shipping through calculations using historical data, suitable emission factors of CAS and pollutants, and assessment of reduction strategies. Analysis of impact on the atmospheric and marine environment and on the greenhouse effect. An assessment will be made and, if possible, quantification of the contribution to the reduction of the carbon footprint.

Reduction of Carbon Footprint in Shipping (M1 – M10)

Recording carbon footprint trends using National databases and the European CAMS database. Design and development of hydrophobic surfaces with a reduced friction coefficient. Calculation of carbon footprint in alternative scenarios with emission factors for conventional and alternative fuels, in order to produce results useful for the formulation of National strategy and design of international policy directions.

Management of Climate-Active Emissions and Anti-Pollution Technologies (M6 – M18)

Study of emission control technologies for the production of emission factors and operational characteristics. Data from international programs and new measurements. Focus on climate-active substances (CO2, N2O, CH4, BC, BrC, hydrocarbons, aerosols) and the main air pollutants (NOx, SOx, PM). Technologies: New engines, scrubbers, carbon capture, fuel cells, catalysts, particle filters, etc., to accelerate the reduction of the footprint even of transitional and clean fuels.

Management of Other Environmental Pressures (M6 – M18)

Study of prevention and management measures for environmental pressures to maintain Biodiversity. Review of the existing situation and best practices of systems for the integrated management of ballast. Risk assessment of the transfer of invasive species through ships to ports. Review of the impacts of noise on marine organisms.

Monitoring and Impacts of Climate-Active Emissions on the Environment (M12 – M24)

Monitoring and impacts of CAS emissions and other gaseous and particulate pollutants on the atmospheric and marine environment. Mapping of CAS in ports and areas of increased shipping traffic using existing and new measurements. Analysis of historical and new data on atmospheric pollution and application of methodologies for the detection and distribution of emission sources. Estimation of the impacts of CAS and pollutants on the marine environment for different fuels/propulsion systems.

Work Package 5

Digitalization Technologies (M1 – M24)
Various digitalization technologies that support Green Shipping will be studied, such as big data analysis and real-time monitoring, new technologies for remote and autonomous navigation, traffic management, and the use of digital twins. An evaluation will be conducted and, if possible, quantification of the contribution to the reduction of the carbon footprint.

Real-Time Monitoring Technologies and Big Data Analysis (M1 – M18)

Recording digital technologies, defining use cases/applications for exploration, accelerating dissemination, and demonstrating advantages associated with (a) the use of alternative fuels (b) the adoption of technologies to reduce environmental footprint and pollution control. For example, technologies and usage scenarios for monitoring fuel consumption, engine operation, and real-time/travel route planning/optimization of speed. Selection and configuration of the IoT platform for the corresponding functions. Selection and configuration of the environment for the collection, processing, visualization of large volume data for the implementation of the IoT platform.

Remote and Autonomous Navigation / Traffic Management (M6 – M24)

Determining the level of automation for selected functions, e.g., engine operation in case of failure, selection/development of algorithms and implementation of remote operation, adaptive voyage/route planning. Use of machine learning methodologies and analysis of meteorological data and operational data of main engines for forecasting sailing speed and main engine fuel consumption for energy-efficient operation of ships. Big data analyses related to weather and sea conditions for the optimization of ship weather routing, including a review of methodologies for weather routing of ships and optimization of voyage as well as exploring the possibility of developing a comprehensive traffic management system in specific areas.

Digital Twin (M6 – M18)

Determining ship subsystems for simulation with digital twin technology and techniques. Environment for digital twins of ship and port (selected models, platform, etc.). Use of open data from related European Projects. Digital twin service for autonomous ships, strongly associated with green shipping, e.g., energy management system monitoring and adaptation.

Work Package 6

Circular Economy Solutions (M12 – M24)
Solutions for the circular economy will be investigated, and a life cycle analysis of the technologies and fuels studied in the previous WPs will be conducted. Where feasible, an estimation and, if possible, a quantification of the contribution to the reduction of the carbon footprint will be made.

Green Ship Recycling (M12 – M24)

The ship recycling industry has become a focal point of particular interest due to new international conventions under the auspices of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Green ship recycling and the processes followed are significantly influenced by the original design of the ship. The characteristics and the ability of how the ship’s construction affects its final breaking in a green manner and in accordance with international requirements will be studied, with an even greater emphasis on reducing the carbon footprint.

Biofuels as a Recycling Product (M12 – M24)

Among low-carbon technologies, second and third-generation biofuels stand out. A study will be conducted regarding how biofuels, as recycling products, can contribute to Green Shipping, and their impact will be assessed.

Industrial Symbiosis in Port-Ship Systems (M18 – M24)

The study of industrial symbiosis in ports-ships (closed-type symbiosis) and interventions that can be implemented for the successful use and reuse of energy will be examined. Industrial symbiosis in port areas as well as port-ship symbiosis.

Life Cycle Analysis of Technologies and Fuels (M12 – M24)

An analysis and estimation of the construction, operation, and maintenance costs of technologies and fuels with specific technical specifications will be conducted, as well as the environmental footprint of the above stages in their lifecycle. Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCC) and Lifecycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies will be used and followed, based on standards and models that have been developed internationally.

Work Package 7

Roadmap of Optimal Combination of Solutions (M12 – M28)
This is the focus of the project, as it uses all the elements/results from the previous WPs to evaluate them and arrive at the “selection of the optimal combination of solutions” in terms of environmental and possibly economic benefits for new constructions and conversions of ships.

Final Evaluation of Technologies and Methods in Decarbonization (M12 – M26)

The final evaluation of each technology and method will be carried out based on quantitative and qualitative estimates and the results of WPs 2-5, for various ships and ports, as well as the case studies of WP 8. The main parameter is the percentage of decarbonization per category of shipping activity (for new constructions and conversions) and ports.

Implementation of the Decision Support Platform for Retrofits and New Constructions (M18 – M28)

The platform developed in WP 1.4, based on the methodology and criteria of WP 1.3 and enriched during the project with the range of solutions of WPs 2-6, will be applied to typical cases of shipping activities (ships, routes, etc.) with available main features (e.g., from available databases) for newbuildings and conversions, aiming to propose the best combinations.

Optimal Combinations of Solutions on the Path to Green Shipping (M18 – M28)

Following WP 7.1 and WP 7.2, optimal combinations of design, technological, and operational solutions in the lifecycle of ships will be studied based on the type and size of the ship, the operational profile, and the connection with ports, terminal stations, and fuel supply areas. The analysis will take into account factors that dynamically evolve over time, such as the availability and production cost of clean fuels, the technological maturity of new solutions, and the increasing requirements of the regulatory framework at European and international levels with their timelines. Solutions that are applied to new ships during construction and solutions that are gradually incorporated into the lifecycle of the ship will be studied so that optimal combinations emerge based on sustainability criteria (environmental – economic – social) that lead to the gradual reduction of the carbon footprint of shipping.

New Regulations, Adjustment of Regulatory Framework, and International Institutions (M24 – M28)

Regulations at the regional (EU) and international level (IMO) for reducing the carbon footprint of shipping will be investigated, their differences will be analyzed, and their progressively increasing requirements for new and existing ships with their timelines will be mapped. Areas of the regulatory framework that require shaping (e.g., SOLAS, IGF) for the smooth introduction of alternative fuels and new technologies into ships will be recorded. In addition, regulations regarding new fuels and safety rules will be correlated with the main tasks of WP 2. Also, the requirements for the safety of ICT supporting critical infrastructure/shipping will be recorded in the existing and expected legal and regulatory framework.

Strategic Plan and Timeline for Implementation / Realistic Solutions (M12 – M28)

The solutions and their combinations examined in WPs 7.1-7.3 will be investigated in terms of technological maturity, as many are still in the development stage and have not been extensively tested. Depending on the estimated time for further development, a strategic plan with priorities and realistic solutions will be drafted for the time horizon up to 2050, to approach decarbonization realistically but as thoroughly and promptly as possible.

Benefit Assessment in Relation to Climate Change (M18 – M28)

For the different combinations of solutions per type of shipping activity (WP 7.5), the environmental benefit and the general carbon footprint of shipping (shipping enterprises, ports, etc.) will be estimated along the value chain of activities as well as the impact of all measures on its improvement on an environmental and economic basis.

Work Package 8

Case Studies and Synergy Actions with the Production Network (M1 – M28)
The project results will be used to conduct two characteristic case studies and for the transfer of expertise and synergy actions with the production network, institutional bodies, and shipping companies at the national and international level.

Case Study 1: Ocean-going Vessel (M12 – M24)

The scenarios will consider solutions applied in the construction of a new ship as well as solutions implemented during the life of the ship to gradually improve the carbon footprint in compliance with the regulatory framework’s timelines (EU and IMO) and to take into account significant parameters for the selection such as technological maturity and the cost of the solution which change over time. Scenario 1: Cargo ship with conventional HFO based propulsion installation. Gradual energy upgrade with a) energy efficiency solutions (technical and operational in the period 2023 – 2030), b) alternative fuels, 2030+ and c) energy production on board (wind and electric 2030+. Scenario 2: Cargo ship with dual-fuel propulsion. Gradual upgrade with a) technical and operational solutions (2023 – 2030), b) a mixture of alternative fuels (2030+), and c) fuel reforming system and hydrogen creation for combustion and supply to a fuel cell with CO2 capture and storage, (2035+).

Case Study 2: Coastal Shipping-Island Connectivity (M12 – M24)

A study to find the best ways to facilitate the transition of the existing coastal shipping system to a more sustainable operation through the use of electric and/or hybrid ships. In this case study, coastal ships in a specific area will be studied for either longer journeys or shorter local routes with the goal of mitigating climate change and environmental pollution from coastal shipping through a multifaceted approach to the existing system, to explore the feasibility and level of acceptance of the implementation of new technologies. The full environmental footprint of the proposed technological solutions will also be assessed. Within this framework, where possible, already advanced models of atmospheric and maritime traffic simulation will be used as well as dispersion and biochemical evolution of discharged substances, in combination with the environmental data base created in the EN.I.R.IS.S.T. infrastructure (funded by ΓΓΕΤ) Application areas of this scenario will be for example either a closed sea such as the Saronic Gulf or areas with small islands in combination with routes to larger central islands. The benefits of the solutions will be studied both at the level of pollutants and at the social level and to what extent green shipping can contribute to the connection and ultimately to social benefits in these island regions.

Linking Results with the Production Network (M18 – M28)

A detailed record of the expertise of the project’s stakeholders per technology/solution will be created, so that targeting of the production network (national and international) can be done at a later stage. The initial approach will be based on the results of WPs 2-7 and the two case studies, with an emphasis on techno-economic criteria, to attract interest and lead to further collaborations and exploitation of the results.

Synergies with Institutional Bodies and Shipping Companies (M1 – M28)

Throughout the project, national/international institutional bodies, associations, shipping companies, consulting offices, companies, and entities manufacturing shipping equipment will be approached, with the aim to: (1) integrate their needs into the implementation of the project, (2) widely disseminate the best (combinatorial) solutions that will lead to the reduction and zeroing of pollution in shipping, (3) create new collaborations and projects, (4) contribute to the development of a roadmap at both research and business levels of the necessary actions towards green shipping, and (5) direct the production network towards investments aimed at decarbonizing shipping with innovative and competitive solutions and activities that play a positive role in the social cohesion of such an island nation as Greece.

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